France’s tepid intelligence reform

Draft law to introduce new data analysis capabilities.

Jacques Follorou is a French journalist. He graduated in 1991 from the Journalist Training Center (CFJ), in Paris. He started his career in 1993 working freelance for the weekly Le Canard enchaîné. In 1996, he was hired by the daily Le Monde and worked mostly on legal cases, in particular those related to the financing of political parties and corruption. In 1998, he also covered Corsican terrorism and mafia stories. After the 09/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, he extended his investigative work to the financing of terrorism and more broadly to financial investigations. In 2008, he joined the international desk where he is in charge of Afghanistan and Pakistan, terrorism and intelligence issues. In 2013, he started working on the material provided by Edward Snowden thanks to an exclusive contact, in France, to the american activist lawyer Glenn Greenwald to whom the former contractor of the National Security Agency (NSA) entrusted his archives. It was the beginning of a direct dialogue with the American whistleblower and ongoing investigations into the French government's surveillance system. Since then, Jacques Follorou has continued his investigations into the intelligence world by contributing, in particular, to the revelations, in 2018 and 2019, of the interference of Russian espionage in Europe. He dedicates a part his work trying to point out the weaknesses of the French legal framework for intelligence. Jacques Follorou is the author of several books, including, in 2018, "L’Etat secret" (The Secret State, Democracy Undermined, Fayard), which comprises an exclusive interview with Edward Snowden. Jacques Follorou considers security and freedom as not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, freedom and debate contribute to security.

French Council of State discovers the ‘philosopher’s stone’ of data retention

A legal analysis on the Court’s recent ruling.

Theodore Christakis (@TC_IntLaw) is Professor of International and European Law at University Grenoble Alpes (France), Director of Research for Europe with the Cross-Border Data Forum, and a former Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the New York University Cybersecurity Centre. He is also Chair on the Legal and Regulatory Implications of Artificial Intelligence with the Multidisciplinary Institute on AI (, Director of the Centre for International Security and European Studies, and Co-Director of the Grenoble Alpes Data Institute. He is a honorary member of the Institut Universitaire de France. At the national level, he has exercised responsibilities on digital issues as an active member of the French National Committee for Digital Ethics (created in December 2019 at the request of the French Prime Minister) and as a past member of the French National Digital Council, an independent advisory commission of the French government (2018-2020). He has published or co-edited 11 books, he is author or co-author of more than 88 academic articles and book chapters, and he has been invited to give lectures and present his work at conferences, workshops, and seminars on over a hundred occasions in more than 31 different countries. As an international expert he has advised governments, international organisations, and private companies on issues concerning international and European law, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, and data protection law. He also has experience working as external Data Protection Officer (GDPR compliance) for tech companies.

France’s police bill: surveillance for the long haul

The French state’s illiberal drift.

A new digital hub for intelligence law and oversight

One searchable database for all documents about…